Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Forming Extended Analogies with GPT-3

I wanted to explore how good it is at extended analogies. I found one dataset in a paper called the Latent Relational Mapping Engine. The task in the paper is a matching task-- given a list for each side of the analogy, figure out how to match them up. But GPT-3 only needs one side of the list (or even a partial list from one side) to generate the full correspondence. (I'm not certain GPT-3 didn't read the paper, but from some informal experiments it seems to work on original analogies as well.) 
In each list, I provided the sentence that begins "As another example" and the first term on the left hand side, and GPT-3 provided the rest, except in a few cases where GPT-3 also provided the first term. I've bolded all of them because I don't remember which ones it supplied. 
Another fun thing I tried was letting it invent its own analogies.
As another example, here is an analogy between the solar system and the atom:
* the sun corresponds to the nucleus
* the planets correspond to the electrons
* the orbits correspond to the electron shells
* the gravity of the sun corresponds to the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus and the electrons
* the gravitational force of the sun corresponds to the Coulomb force between the nucleus and the electrons
* revolution corresponds to rotation
* attraction corresponds to the force between the nucleus and the electrons As another example, here is an analogy between water flow and heat transfer:
* water
corresponds to heat
* the pipes correspond to the heat exchangers
* the faucet corresponds to the inlet
* the drain corresponds to the outlet
* the water pressure corresponds to the temperature difference
* a water tower corresponds to a hot water tank
* a bucket corresponds to a heat sink
* filling corresponds to heating
* emptying corresponds to cooling
* hydrodynamics corresponds to thermodynamics As another example, here is an analogy between waves and sound:
* the shore
corresponds to the wall
* the water corresponds to the air
* the wave corresponds to the sound
* reflecting corresponds to bouncing
* the wave's height corresponds to the sound's volume
* a breakwater corresponds to a sound-absorbing wall
* rough water corresponds to loud sound
* calm water corresponds to soft sound
* crashing corresponds to booming
* a tsunami corresponds to a sonic boom
* a wave's shape corresponds to a sound's tone
* a wave's speed corresponds to a sound's frequency As another example, here is an analogy between combustion and respiration:
* the oxygen
corresponds to the air
* the fuel corresponds to the food
* the fire corresponds to the body's metabolism
* burning corresponds to breathing
* hot corresponds to warm
* intense corresponds to rapid
* carbon dioxide corresponds to carbon monoxide As another example, here is an analogy between sound and light:
* the speed of sound
corresponds to the speed of light
* the pitch corresponds to the frequency
* the loudness corresponds to the amplitude
* the medium corresponds to the vacuum
* low corresponds to red
* high corresponds to blue
* a horn corresponds to a light bulb
* a piano corresponds to a laser As another example, here is an analogy between a computer and a mind:
* the CPU
corresponds to the brain
* the RAM corresponds to the short-term memory
* the hard drive corresponds to the long-term memory
* the keyboard corresponds to the input devices
* the monitor corresponds to the output devices
* the operating system corresponds to the mind
* erasing a file corresponds to forgetting
* a bug in the software corresponds to a cognitive bias
* a computer virus corresponds to a cognitive virus
* read corresponds to perceive
* write corresponds to think As another example, here is an analogy between playing a slot machine and a bacterial mutation:
* the slot machine
corresponds to a bacterial cell
* the slot machine's reels correspond to the bacterial cell's chromosomes
* the slot machine's handle corresponds to the bacterial cell's flagellum
* the slot machine's payout corresponds to the bacterial cell's fitness
* winning corresponds to a mutation that increases fitness
* losing corresponds to a mutation that decreases fitness
* spinning the reels corresponds to the cell dividing As another example, here is an analogy between a war and an argument:
* the soldiers
correspond to the debaters
* the weapons correspond to the arguments
* the battle plan corresponds to the plan of attack
* the strategy corresponds to the plan of defense
* the casualties correspond to the injuries
* the prisoners of war correspond to the concessions
* the surrender corresponds to the surrender of the debate
* destroy the enemy's army corresponds to defeat the opponent As another example, here is an analogy between money and time:
* a dollar
corresponds to an hour
* a budget corresponds to a schedule
* a bank account corresponds to a calendar
* expensive things correspond to time-consuming things
* cheap things correspond to time-saving things As another example, here is an analogy between grounds for a building and reasons for a theory:
* foundations
correspond to axioms
* buildings correspond to theories
* supporting correspond to justifying
* the basement corresponds to the axioms
* solid corresponds to provable
* weak corresponds to conjectural
* a crack corresponds to a flaw
* a building that collapses corresponds to a theory that is refuted
* a building that is condemned corresponds to a theory that is abandoned
* a building that is renovated corresponds to a theory that is revised As another example, here is an analogy between buying an item and accepting a belief:
* the buyer
corresponds to the believer
* the merchandise corresponds to the belief
* buying corresponds to believing
* selling corresponds to disbelieving As another example, here is an analogy between buying an item and accepting a belief:
* the buyer
corresponds to the believer
* the merchandise corresponds to the belief
* buying corresponds to believing
* returning corresponds to revising
* valuable corresponds to true
* worthless corresponds to false

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